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Open Access Article. Komlan Koudahe. Murali Darapuneni. Suat Irmak. Chase Hall, P. Fruit and nut trees production is an important activity across the southwest United States and this production is greatly impacted by the local climate. The objective of the present study is to estimate the chilling and heat accumulation of fruit and nut trees across New Mexico. Three study sites as Fabian Garcia, Los Lunas, and Farmington were considered and climate variables were collected at hourly time step. The Utah model and the Dynamic model were used to estimate the accumulated chilling while the Forcing model was used for the heat accumulation.
The possible fruit and nut trees endodormancy and ecodormancy periods were also determined at the study sites. The accumulated heat was Severe weather, especially frost conditions during winter and early spring, can be a ificant threat to sustainable nut and fruit production in the northern New Mexico while high chilling requirement fruit and nut trees might not meet chill requirements in the southern New Mexico.
Keywords: fruit and nut trees; chilling; heat accumulation; modeling; New Mexico fruit and nut trees ; chilling ; heat accumulation ; modeling ; New Mexico. Introduction Temperate fruit trees production is an important activity which heavily depends on the prevailing climatic conditions in the production area and air temperature is the main factor controlling fruit trees phenology [ 1 ]. Under cold winter conditions, the temperate plants go dormant to protect the fragile growing tissue from frost and preserve accumulated nutrients. When chilling requirements are not met for a fruit tree, crop growth, bud initiation, flowering and fruit set are delayed in the following growing season [ 23 ].
On the other hand, increasing air temperature may accelerate winter chill accumulation and advances crop growth and flowering dates [ 4567 ]. In contrast, spring phenology of fruit trees is delayed by warm winter [ 891011 ]. Plants are affected by the winter temperature causing chilling effects and spring temperature causing forcing effects and these two mechanisms are determinant to spring phenology of the fruit trees [ 12 ].
Each fruit tree has accumulated chilling requirements and goes dormant by releasing winter endodormancy and ecodormancy [ 1314 ]. Endodormancy is initiated by low temperature, whereas ecodormancy is driven by heat [ 1516 ]. There is also accumulated heat requirement for the fruit trees for plant growth, leaf unfolding, bud burst initiation, and flowering [ 17 ]. The chilling and heat requirements are considered as the driving factors in breaking endodormancy and ecodormancy [ 16 ]. agro sex new mexico ks free cyber
It is widely adopted that chilling period covers 1 November—30 April [ 1218 ]. However, Guo et al. Guo et al. While the occurrence of freezing conditions induces variation in a possible chill effectiveness in Beijing [ 19 ], that variation was also reported by Luedeling and Gassner [ 20 ] and Luedeling et al. The North Carolina Model is an adaptation of the Utah model with adjusted temperature ranges for apple trees. The Melo-Abreu et al. Among these models, the Chilling Hours Model, the Utah Model, and the Dynamic Model are worldwide used with reasonably good performance [ 24163132333435363738394041424344 ].
These models showed different performance across the globe and the responses agro sex new mexico ks free cyber vary with years, observation sites, and the growing regions [ 3940 ]. Among the different chilling models, the dynamic model appears the most robust chilling model [ 2034364145 ]. Heat requirement of the trees is modelled by the Forcing model also called the Growing Degree Hour model [ 46 ] which assumes heat accumulation starting when air temperature falls between a base temperature and the critical temperature with a maximum heat accumulation at the optimum temperature.
The base temperature of a plant species is the minimum threshold temperature at which plant growth starts and the critical temperature is the upper threshold temperature at which all crop physiological activities cease [ 47 ]. Chill requirements vary with tree species.
In Alabama, chill requirements are — for standard apple, — for Japanese plum, about for cherry, and 50— for blackberry [ 48 ]. Luedeling et al. Chilling and heat requirements were Chill portion and heat requirements of cherry cultivars varied from Chilling requirements of 15 peach cultivars ranged between and chill hour CHand chill unit CUand Local almond cultivars chilling and heat requirements ranged from 3. Fruit and nut trees are a rewarding addition to backyard landscapes beside the medium to large commercial fruit and nut trees fields across New Mexico where the climatic conditions are variable.
Different fruit crops are grown over Fruit and nut trees such agro sex new mexico ks free cyber Apricots, plums, apples, cherries, peaches, pears, grapes, persimmons, figs, pecans, pistachios, almonds, jujubes, blueberries, and different berries are produced across New Mexico. The late-blooming and non-uniform varieties with some late flowers have a better chance to produce than uniform and early blooming varieties [ 53 ].
Apples The State of New Mexico is characterized by recurrent occurring late spring frosts across the state, injuring the flowers and young fruits of early flowering species [ 53 ]. The recurrent question growers ask the extension agents is related to fruit and nut tree species and cultivars choice with reference to their local environmental or climatic conditions. While the answer is not straightforward, very limited information exists on the chill and heat requirements of different fruit and nut trees across the agro sex new mexico ks free cyber agroecological zone in New Mexico.
Therefore, it is critical to estimate the chill portions and chill units in different parts of the state to assist growers with tree species and cultivars selection for each location for sustainable and profitable fruit production. The objective of this study is to help growers in decision-making regarding the fruit trees choice depending on their chill and heat requirement at different parts of the state of New Mexico, USA.
This study is focused on the State of New Mexico. Three locations were chosen as Fabian Garcia New Mexico is characterized by a semiarid climate at the eastern and southern regions while the central, the northern, and western regions are characterized by arid climate. All climatic variables were monitored on an hourly basis at each site using an automated weather station.
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For the present study, only hourly and daily average temperatures were used. In this study, the following calendar was adopted: for the fruit trees across New Mexico. The dormancy season is assumed to start on 1 July and ends on 30 June of the following year. The period of July to June at Fabian Garcia, July to June at Los Lunas, and July to June at Farmington were considered under the present study due to data availability with no gap or periodic missing data. The time series data were checked for quality control following the methodology described by Allen et al.
Among the numerous models developed and evaluated for chill and heat accumulation by fruit trees, the Forcing model [ 46 ], the Utah Model [ 23 ], and the Dynamic Model [ 2425 ] are the most used across the globe. The Agro sex new mexico ks free cyber model revealed to be accurate with high precision. Similarly, the Utah model and the Dynamic model are the most used and the most precise chill accumulation models.
For the present study we consider the three models to estimate the potential heat and chill accumulation at the three research stations. The chilling requirement was calculated each year as the sum of hourly chilling units CU from endodormancy onset until the transition from endodormancy to ecodormancy. Similarly, the heat requirement is the sum of the growing degree hours from the onset to the end of the ecodormancy.
The GDH Model equivalent to the thermal unit accumulation model assumes heat accumulation when the actual hourly temperature Ti is between the fruit trees base temperature Tb which is the lowest temperature threshold and the critical temperature Tc which is the upper threshold temperature, and the optimum temperature Tu at which the maximum heat accumulations occurs.
F is a plant stress factor that is commonly set to 1, if no particular stress exists.
Chilling requirement of fruit agro sex new mexico ks free cyber The Utah Model [ 23 ]. The Utah Model attributes the weighing parameter as function of actual temperature to determine the effectiveness of chilling. The Utah Model introduces the concept of negative chill accumulation and the chilling effectiveness. The distribution of chill accumulation as function of temperature is presented in Table 1.
The dynamic model [ 2425 ]. The dynamic model developed in Israel assumes winter chill accumulation as a result of two-step process: production of intermediate chilling products which are destructible by the high temperatures, and the conversion of the intermediate products into permanent chill portions under moderate temperatures. The chill portions are accumulated and summed throughout winter. The detailed description of the dynamic model with all the used equations is presented in Fishman et al. Air temperature increased at Fabian Garcia from 1.
On average, chilling accumulation period by the Utah Model 1. Daily average temperature was never negative according to our study period. For the period from October to March, average daily temperature was Average annual temperature was Annual daily temperature was 8. Daily average temperature fell within the range [1. For the period from October to March, average daily temperature was 6. Seasonal average air temperature for the period of October—March was 6.
The appropriate period for chilling accumulation at Farmington 1. On annual basis, annual air temperature is